25 Easy English Lessons

1. What do you want to know?
2. Making basic sentence patterns
3. Subject + Linking Verb + Subject Compliment
4. Linking Verbs to use with S + LV + SC
5. Basic Adjectives for S + LV + SC Sentences
6. Subject + Verb and Subject + Verb + Object
7. Action Verbs
8. Articles, Determiners and Pronouns in Paragraphs
9. Basic Adjectives for S + V + O Sentences
10. Adverbs
11. Introduction to Tenses
12. Continuous Tenses
13. Perfect Tenses
14. Future
15. Review of Tenses
16. Yes/No Questions
17. Wh-Questions
18. Writing Tips
19. Creating an Outline
20. An Example of an Essay
21. An Example of a Story
22. Tips to Improve Your Writing
23. Tips to Improve Your Speaking
24. Reading Tips
25. Listening Tips

Lesson 1

What do you want to know?

When people want information, there are three things they want to know.

What is it?
What is it like?
What does it do?

Keep this in mind as you read these following examples:

What is it?


It is a tiger.
A tiger is an animal.
A tiger looks like a big cat with stripes.

What is it like?

A tiger is big.
A tiger is strong.
A tiger is dangerous.
A tiger looks very beautiful.

What does it do?

A tiger runs. A tiger jumps
A tiger kills. A tiger eats.

A tiger eats meat.

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Lesson 2

Making Basic Sentences

If you can make basic sentences, you can share information easily and do well in English class. Here are three sentence patterns to help you make basic sentences.

Subject + Linking Verb + Subject Compliment
Subject + Verb
Subject + Verb + Object


Each part of a sentence pattern is a place to put different types of words.

Subject + Linking Verb + Subject Compliment

Put nouns and subject pronouns in place of the subject.
Put linking verbs in place of the linking verb.
Put nouns or adjectives in place of the subject compliment.

Subject + Verb and Subject + Verb + Object

Put nouns and subject pronouns in place of the subject.
Put verbs in the place of the verb.
Put nouns and object pronouns in place of the object.

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Lesson 3

Subject + Linking Verb + Subject Compliment


S + LV + SC answers the question, What is it? and What is it like? Here are the parts of speech you need to make S + LV + SC.

The subject is what the sentence is about. A noun can be used as the subject. A noun identifies a person place, thing, feeling or idea. A subject pronoun can be used as the subject. The subject pronouns are: I, You, He, She, It, We, You, They.

A linking verb links a subject with a subject compliment. Some linking verbs are: be, look, sound, smell, taste, feel, act, become.

A noun can be used as the subject compliment. An object pronoun can be used as the subject compliment. The object pronouns are: me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them.

An adjective describes nouns, and can be used as subject compliment.

Here are some examples with nouns as the subject compliment:

It is a tiger. A tiger is an animal.
A tiger looks like a big cat with stripes.

Here are some examples with adjectives as the subject compliment:

A tiger is big. A tiger is strong. A tiger is dangerous.
The tiger looks very hungry.

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Lesson 4

Linking Verbs to use with S + LV + SC

Beside the verb to be, other linking verbs include sound, look, smell, taste and feel. They relate to our senses. These other linking verbs work easily with adjectives in the S + LV + SC sentence pattern.

My cat looks beautiful.

However, if you want to use a noun or object pronoun as a subject compliment, you need to use the word like. Like means similar to.

My cat looks like a tiger.

Another linking verb is become. When become is used with a noun, it means that the subject changes into what the noun is. When become (or get) is used with adjectives, it means that the subject changes to be the way the adjective describes.

Here are some examples to help you remember linking verbs.

I am hungry. Let’s go out for pizza.
The music sounds good.
The pizza looks good.
The pizza smells good.
The pizza tastes good.
I feel good.

Perhaps I will become a pizza chef.
And I will become famous.
But if I eat too much pizza I will get fat.

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Lesson 5

Basic Adjectives for S + LV + SC Sentences

Adjectives describe nouns. For S + LV + SC sentences, put the adjective in the place of the subject compliment.

Here are some adjectives that you can start using for S + LV + SC.

Value, Opinion, Feeling, Quality: bad, good, nice

Size, Shape, Measurement, Age, Temperature: big, cold, hot, little, long, new, old, rectangular, round, short, large, small, square, triangular, warm, young

Colour: black, blue, clear, green, grey, orange, pink, purple, red, white, yellow

Nationality or Origin: American, Chinese, English, Thai

Substance or Material: ceramic, cloth, copper, glass, gold, leather, metal, paper, plastic, silver, stone, titanium, wooden

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Lesson 6

Subject + Verb and Subject + Verb + Object

S + V and S + V + O answer the question, What does it do? Here are the parts of speech you need to make S + V or S + V + O.

The subject is what the sentence is about. A noun can be used as the subject. A noun identifies a person place, thing, feeling or idea. A subject pronoun can also be used as the subject. The subject pronouns are: I, You, He, She, It, We, You, They.

A verb describes the action that the subject does.

Sometimes a verb has an object. The object is what gets the action of the verb. A noun can be used as the object. An object pronoun can also be used as the object. The object pronouns are: me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them.

Here are some examples of S + V.

A tiger runs. A tiger jumps.
A tiger kills. A tiger eats.

Here is an example of S + V + O.

A tiger eats meat.

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Lesson 7

Action Verbs

Here are some useful verbs in easy-to-remember groups.

Action: catch, release, escape, walk, run, jump, swim, attack, fight, hit, beat, kick, drop, throw, break, burst, build, damage, destroy, find, lose, win, slip, slide, fall, pull, push, lead, guide, search, save

School: ask, tell, say, see, speak, talk, hear, listen, see, look, touch, watch, work, let, play, teach, learn, try, attempt, reward, read, write, stand, sit, sleep, awaken, help, support, begin, end, start, finish, stop

Food: choose, bring, take, send, buy, sell, give, get, have, hold, keep, put, want, need, make, fix, cause, grow, crush, cut, shake, pour, stir, add, mix, measure, heat, bake, cook, burn, blow, bite, eat, swallow, sip, drink, clean, wash, fold, roll

Thoughts and Feelings: feel, think, hope, frown, cry, smile, laugh, whistle, sing, dance, enjoy, meet, hug, kiss, cough, sneeze, (The following are state verbs that are not used in continuous tenses.) believe, dislike, doubt, know, regret, like, love, hate, desire

Transportation: come, go, drive, ride, pilot, control, fly, land, crash, sink

Helping verbs: do for questions; do not for negatives; can for ability and permission; going to for future, will for predictions; would and used to for past habits; be for continuous tenses, have for perfect tenses

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Lesson 8

Articles, Determiners and Pronouns in Paragraphs

There is a basic pattern to use articles, determiners and pronouns when you write paragraphs.

For singular countable nouns, use this pattern.

a or an → the → subject pronoun.

The first time you talk about something, use a or an.
The second time you talk about something, use the.
After that, use a subject pronoun.

Here is an example.

An elephant was walking in the jungle. The elephant saw a banana. He ate the banana. It was delicious.

For plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns, use this pattern.

some → the → They (for countable) or It (for uncountable).

Here is an example.

Some elephants were walking through the jungle. The elephants saw some bananas. They ate the bananas. They were delicious.

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Lesson 9

Basic Adjectives for S + V + O Sentences

Adjectives describe nouns. For S + V + O sentences, put the adjective in front of the noun. If you want to use more than one adjective, it usually works well for you to put them in this order:
Number + Value, Opinion, Feeling, Quality + Size, Shape, Measurement, Age, Temperature + Colour + Nationality or Origin + Substance or Material

Here are some adjectives that you can start using right away to improve your writing.

Numbers and Quantifiers: 1, 2, 3…some, any, much, many

Value, Opinion, Feeling, Quality: bad, good, nice

Size, Shape, Measurement, Age, Temperature: big, cold, hot, little, long, new, old, rectangular, round, short, large, small, square, triangular, warm, young

Colour: black, blue, clear, green, grey, orange, pink, purple, red, white, yellow

Nationality or Origin: American, Chinese, English, Thai

Substance or Material: ceramic, cloth, copper, glass, gold, leather, metal, paper, plastic, silver, stone, titanium, wooden

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Lesson 10

Adverbs

Adverbs of manner describe the action of a verb.

Use them at the end of a sentence just to be safe.

slowly, quickly, promptly, gently, roughly, safely, carefully, carelessly, dangerously, recklessly, hungrily, greedily, rudely, politely, sleepily, lazily, soundly, lightly, softly, quietly, noisily, well, nicely, beautifully, poorly, badly, busily, diligently, cleverly, skillfully, happily, gladly, cheerfully, playfully, sadly, angrily, boldly, bravely, courageously, cautiously, timidly

Adverbs of time give information about when something happens.

early, late, before, after, during, while, today, this week, this month, this year, yesterday, last week, last month, last year, first, then, next, after that, finally, last of all, in the end

Adverbs of frequency say how often something happens.

To avoid problems, use these adverbs right before the main verb..

A good student always does his homework.
regularly (routinely) = 100% at a set time
always (almost always) = 90% to 100%
usually (normally) = more than 75%
often (frequently) = 60% to 90%
sometimes (occasionally) = 50%
rarely (seldom) = less than 25%
never (almost never) = 0% to 10%

Adverbs of probability say how sure something is to happen.

Follow these useful patterns.

S + will certainly + V = 100%
S + will probably + V = 80% - 90%
S + will possibly +V = 60% - 70%
Perhaps + S + will + V = 50% - 60%
Perhaps + S won’t +V = 40% or less
S + probably won’t +V = 20% or less
S+ certainly won’t + V = 0%

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Lesson 11

Tenses

Tenses are used to show when something happens. Tenses affect the form verbs take in a sentence. Tenses are not sentence patterns. They just affect the verbs. Tenses can be used with any sentence pattern. Make sure you know when to use them, not just how to make them.

Present simple

Use present simple for something that is always true; a fact, a habit, a routine. Use the V1 base form. Check verb agreement when using He/She/It. Check verb agreement when using the verb to be and to have as main verbs.

Past simple

Use past simple for something that happened once in the past. Say when. Use the V2 past form. For most regular verbs, add -ed. For irregular verbs, study an irregular verb chart and try to remember them. Check verb agreement when using the verb to be and verb to have as main verbs.

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Lesson 12

Present continuous

Use present continuous for current time; something happening now, today, this week, this month, this year. Use present form of the helping verb to be + the -ing present participle form of the main verb. Check verb agreement when using the helping verb to be.

Past continuous

Use past continuous for two things happening in the past at the same time (or to start a story). Or use past continuous for something happening in the past that was stopped by another action. (The second action is past simple.) Use V2 past form of the helping verb to be + the -ing present participle form of the main verb. Check verb agreement when using the helping verb to be.

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Lesson 13

Present perfect

Use present perfect for something that happened a short time in the past or big news headlines (use just), or to give a complete past history, but don’t say when, (like on a resume), or to give a complete past history, (use for or since with the idea that it has not stopped yet). Use base form of the helping verb to have + V3 past participle form of the main verb. Check verb agreement when using the helping verb to have.

Past perfect

Use past perfect for something that happened before something else happened. Use V2 past form of the helping verb to have + V3 past participle form of the main verb.

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Lesson 14

Future

be + going to and will can be used to talk about the future. Use be + going to if there is evidence something will happen for sure. Check verb agreement when using the helping verb to be. Use will to make a prediction about what has a good chance of happening. Do not use verb agreement with will.

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Lesson 15

Tenses Review

Here is a story that uses these tenses. Read it and see if you can identify the tenses. Think about why the different tenses are used.

A Famous Monkey

Monkeys love bananas. However, this monkey loves painting pictures. He paints new pictures every day.

Right now, the monkey is eating a banana and thinking. He is thinking about what he will paint today. He is planning to paint another masterpiece.

Here is how it all began. The sun was shining, and the birds were singing. The monkey was eating a banana and thinking; when he suddenly had a wonderful idea. He decided to paint!

This amazing monkey has learned to paint! His paintings have just sold for 25,000 dollars. Although he has only painted for a short while, he has sold many paintings since he has learned to paint, and he has delighted everyone.

Soon the monkey is going to paint another fabulous picture. I think this monkey will be famous.

The End

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Lesson 16

Yes/no questions

Yes/no questions ask about what something is or does. The answer to a yes/no question will be “yes” or “no.” There are four main question patterns for asking yes/no questions.

Am I __________?
Is he/she/it __________?
Are we/you/they __________?

Is that a tiger?
Is the tiger hungry?

Do I/you/we/they __________?
Does he/she/it __________?

Does the tiger bite?

Can I __________?
Can he/she/it __________?
Can we/you/they __________?

Can I touch the tiger?

Will I __________?
Will he/she/it __________?
Will we/you/they __________?

Will the tiger bite me?
Will the tiger be angry?

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Lesson 17

Wh-questions

Wh-questions ask for specific information. Wh-question words indicate what kind of information you want. Here are some examples to help you get started.

Who is for people: Who are you? Who is it? Who was it? Who will it be? Who does it? Who did it? Who will do it?

What is for things: What is it? What was it? What will it be? What is it like? What was it like? What will it be like? What does it? What did it? What will do it? What does it do? What did it do? What will it do? What happened? What will happen? What do you want?

When is for time: When is it? When was it? When will it be? When does it happen? When did it happen? When will it happen? When will it be done?

Where is for places: Where is it? Where was it? Where will it be? Where does it happen? Where did it happen? Where will it happen? Where will it be done?

Why is for reasons: Why is it like that? Why was it like that? Why will it be like that? Why does that happen? Why did that happen? Why will that happen? Why does it do that? Why did it do that? Why will it do that?

How is for method, age or number: How is it? How was it? How will it be? How does that happen? How did that happen? How will that happen? How old is it? How many are there? How does it do that? How did it do that? How will it do that?

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Lesson 18


Here are some useful tips to help you begin writing.


S = Ask yourself, “What is the subject?” Choose an interesting subject.
P = Ask yourself, “What is the purpose?” Do you want to entertain, inform or persuade readers?
A = Ask yourself, “Who is the audience?” Who will read what you write?

Mind mapping is a form of brainstorming. It is a picture or diagram that helps you make associations, get your ideas down on paper, and begin to visualize the structure of what you will write.

Create 3-5 distinct nodes or branches that actually represent the 3-5 paragraphs you plan to write. Nodes may be based on wh- questions, or they may contain word lists.

Freewriting is another form of brainstorming that can help you get ideas down on paper. When you freewrite, do not worry too much about spelling, grammar or structure. Just write and let ideas flow naturally.

After you get some good ideas from brainstorming, create an outline to organize your writing based on time sequence, spatial order, or the importance of examples, effects and reasons.

Then write a rough draft. Get a friend to read it. Get his feedback and make corrections.

Then write your final draft.

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Lesson 19

An outline helps you organize your writing.

Here is an easy outline plan to help beginners write at least 3 paragraphs for an essay.

Intro: annecdotes, quotes, facts, statistics, or general statements everyone can agree on, and a thesis statement to tell the purpose of the writing

Supporting paragraph(s): topic sentence that supports thesis, and 3 supporting sentences that support the topic sentence

Conclusion: thesis restatement, repeat of topic sentences and main points, questions, solutions, predictions

Here is an easy outline plan to help beginners write at least 3 paragraphs for telling a story.

Intro: setting, character, conflict statement

Action paragraph(s): status, setting, action, revelation, affect on characters

Conclusion: resolution, final status, opinions, lessons learned, predictions

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Lesson 20

Here is an example of an essay. Read it and see if you can identify the different parts.

My Favorite Animal

Everyone likes animals. One of the most interesting animals is the elephant. Elephants are very interesting because of their appearance.

Elephants have large bodies. They are the largest land animal. They can weigh between 3,000 kg and 5,400 kg, and stand between 2.6 m and 3.4 m tall. In fact elephants are so big, they can be very dangerous.

Elephants have interesting ears. Their ears are very large. Their ears are very sensitive. Elephants can hear far away noises.

Elephants have interesting noses. Their noses are called trunks. Trunks are very long and useful. Elephants can pick leaves from trees with their trunks. They can use their trunks to eat and drink.

Elephants are interesting and unusual. They have large bodies. Their ears are large and sensitive. Their noses are long and useful. Elephants are wonderful.

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Lesson 21

Here is an example of a story. Read it and see if you can identify the different parts.

A Synopsis of Star Wars

Luke Skywalker lived in a galaxy far, far away. He wanted to be a good Jedi Knight. He had to fight Darth Vader who was an evil Jedi Knight.

An old Jedi Knight named Obi Wan Kenobi invited Luke to go to Planet Alderaan and join the war against the evil Galactic Empire. They asked Han Solo to take them to Alderaan on his starship, the Millennium Falcon.

But Alderaan had been destroyed by the Death Star Battle Station. The Millennium Falcon was sucked into the Death Star. Luke was almost captured by Darth Vader, but he escaped, and rescued the beautiful Princess Leia. She had information about how to destroy the Death Star. They went to a secret rebel base and prepared to attack the Death Star with small x-wing star fighters.

It was a very dangerous mission, because the Death Star had good defenses, and the target area was very small. The battle was very fierce, and many rebel pilots were killed. Darth Vader came out to fight the rebels in his own customized star fighter. But Luke was able to hit the target and destroy the Death Star.

Now the galaxy was safe. Luke had learned the importance of bravery. Everyone in the galaxy was satisfied with the outcome. I thought it was a very good movie. Maybe there will be a sequel.

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Lesson 22

Here are some useful tips to help you improve your writing.

Revise your work.

R = Revise, rearrange and organize the text.
E = Eliminate details that do not support the main ideas.
A = Add details that support the main ideas.
C = Check grammar, spelling and punctuation.
H = Have a friend give feedback on iyour work.

Proofread your work.


V = Check verbs; agreement, forms, tenses, helping verbs.
E = Edit for clarity and eliminate awkward sentences!
S = Check spelling and usage with a dictionary.
P = Check prepositions, plural forms and punctuation.
A = Check articles, determiners, adjectives and adverbs.

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Lesson 23

Here are some useful tips to help you improve your speaking.

C = Cue cards in point form only.
U = Use a timer to practice.
P = Practice the night before.
I = Identify yourself before you speak.
D = Do not give up, even if you make a mistake.

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Lesson 24

Reading is a good way to learn vocabulary and grammar in context.

Here are some useful reading tips.

Y = You do not need to know every word.
O = Only look up important words.
G = Get the big picture.
I = Identify nouns and verbs.

For reading tests:

Put your name on the paper. Then read the questions. Circle new words you do not know. Read the text. Circle new words you do not know. Then do the exercises.

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Lesson 25

Here are some useful listening tips.

O = Only worry about important words.
S = Sit up straight.
A= Avoid making unnecessary noises.
K = Keep your pen or pencil close to the paper.
A = Always get the big picture.

For listening tests:

Put your name on the paper first. Then read the questions. Circle new words you do not know. Then listen to the audio 3 times. The first time, do all the exercises you can. The second time, do all the exercises you could not do the first time. The third time, check your work.

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